Publications using SLIM, GLIM, wDPM


  1. Y. He, S. He, M. Kandel, Y. J. Lee, C. Hu, N. Sobh, M. Anastasio, and G. Popescu, Cell Cycle Stage Classification Using Phase Imaging with Computational Specificity, ACS Photonics 2022
  2. J.K. Zhang, M. Fanous, N. Sobh, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, Automatic Colorectal Cancer Screening Using Deep Learning in Spatial Light Interference Microscopy Data, Cells 2022, 11(4), 716
  3. C. Hu, S. He, Y. Lee, Y. He, E. Kong, H. Li, M. Anastasio, and G. Popescu, Live-dead assay on unlabeled cells using phase imaging with computational specificity, Nature Communications, (2022) 13:713


  1. C. Hu, M. Kandel, Y. Lee and G. Popescu, Synthetic aperture interference light (SAIL) microscopy for high-throughput label-free imaging, Applied Physics Letters, 119, 233701 (2021)
  2. N. Goswami and G. Popescu, Diffraction as scattering under the Born approximation, Optics Express, Vol. 29, No. 24 / 22, Nov 2021
  3. G. Popescu, Large-scale phase retrieval, Light: Science & Applications (2021) 10:175
  4. N. Goswami , Y. R. He, Y. Deng, C. Oh, N. Sobh, E. Valera , R. Bashir, N. Ismail, H. J. Kong, T. H. Nguyen, C. Best-Popescu, and G. Popescu, Label-free SARS-CoV-2 detection and classification using phase imaging with computational specificity, Light: Science & Applications, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 1-12 (2021)
  5. N. Goswami, Y. Lu, M. E. Kandel, M. J. Fanous, K. Bohn-Wippert, E. N. Tevonian, R. D. Dar, & G. Popescu, Monitoring reactivation of latent HIV by label-free gradient light interference microscopy, iScience, volume 24, issue 8, pages 102940, August 20, 2021
  6. M. Fanous, C. Shi, M. Caputo, L. Rund, R. Johnson, T. Das, M. Kuchan, N. Sobh, G. Popescu, Label-free screening of brain tissue myelin content using phase imaging with computational specificity (PICS), APL Photonics, 7, 2021
  7. X. Chen, M. Kandel, and G. Popescu, Spatial light interference microscopy: principle and applications to biomedicine , Advances in Optics and Photonics, 13, 353-425, 2021
  8. M. Kandel E. Kim, Y. Lee, G. Tracy, H. Chung, and G. Popescu, Multiscale Assay of Unlabeled Neurite Dynamics Using Phase Imaging with Computational Specificity , ACS Sensors, April, 21, 2021
  9. Y. Jiao, Y. R. He, M. E. Kandel, X. Jun, W. Lu, and G. Popescu, Computational interference microscopy enabled by deep learning , APL Photonics, 6, 2021
  10. C. Polonschii, M. Gheorghiu, S. David, S. Gáspár, S. Melinte,H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, G. Popescu and E. Gheorghiu, High-resolution impedance mapping using electrically activated quantitative phase imaging, Light Sci Appl 10, 20 (2021)


  1. K. Sullivan, C. Park, J. Ito, M. Kandel, G. Popescu, Y. Kim, H. Kong, Matrix Softness-Mediated 3D Zebrafish Hepatocyte Modulates Response to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals, Environmental Science & Technology 2020 54 (21)
  2. M. E. Kandel, Y. He, Y. Lee, T. Chen, K. Sullivan, O. Aydin, M Taher, A. Saif, H. Kong, N. Sobh, G. Popescu, Phase imaging with computational specificity (PICS) for measuring dry mass changes in sub-cellular compartments, Nature Communications, 11, 6256 (2020)
  3. M. Fanous, C. Megan, Y. Lee, L. Rund, M. Kandel, R. Johnson, C. Best-Popescu, M. Kuchan, G. Popescu, Quantifying myelin content in brain tissue using color Spatial Light Interference Microscopy (cSLIM), November 19, 2020 PlosOne
  4. Y. Jiao, M, Kandel, X. Liu, W. Lu, and G. Popescu, Real-time Jones phase microscopy for studying transparent and birefringent specimens, Optics Express, 28, 34190-34200 (2020)
  5. B. Kim, M. Kim, Y. Cho, E. E. Hamed, M. Gillette,H. Cha, N. Miljkovic, V. K. Aakalu,K. Kang, K. Son,K. M. Schachtschneider, L. B.Schook, C. Hu, G. Popescu,Y. Park, W.. Balance,S. Yu, S. Im, J. Lee, C. Lee and H Kong, Electrothermal soft manipulator enabling safe transport and handling of thin cell/tissue sheets and bioelectronic devices, Science Advances, Oct. 16, 2020
  6. C. Yin, X. Xiao, V. Balaban, M. Kandel, Y. Lee, G. Popescu, and P. Bogdan, Network science characteristics of brain-derived neuronal cultures deciphered from quantitative phase imaging data, Scientific Reports, Sept. 15,2020
  7. X. Chen, M. Kandel, C, Hu, Y. Lee, G. Popescu, Wolf phase tomography (WPT) of transparent structures using partially coherent illumination, Light & Science Application, Aug 19,2020
  8. M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, Y. He, S. Schreiber, S. Meyers, L. Naves, M. K. Sermersheim, G. Scott Sell, M. J. Szewczyk, M. B. Wheeler, G. Popescu, Reproductive outcomes predicted by phase imaging with computational specificity of spermatozoon ultrastructure, PNAS, Aug 4,2020
  9. M. Rubessa, J. M.Feugange, M. E.Kandel, S. Schreiber, J. Hessee, F. Salerno, S. Meyers, I. Chu, G. Popescu, M. B.Wheeler, High-throughput sperm assay using label-free microscopy: morphometric comparison between different sperm structures of boar and stallion spermatozoa, Animal Reproduction Science, V219,2020
  10. C. Hu, J. Field, V. Kelkar, B. Chiang, K. Wernsing, K. Toussaint, R. Bartels, and G. Popescu, Harmonic optical tomography of nonlinear structures, Nature Photonics, online,2020
  11. J.K. Zhang, R, He, N. Sobh and G. Popescu, Label-free colorectal cancer screening using deep learning and spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM), APL Photonics, 5,4, 2020
  12. M. Rubessa, M. E. Kandel, S. Schreiber, S. Meyers,D. H. Beck, G. Popescu and M. B. Wheeler, Morphometric analysis of sperm used for IVP by three different separation methods with spatial light interference microscopy, Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine, Vol 66, 2020
  13. K. Goda, G. Popescu, K. Tsia, and D. Psaltis, Computational optical imaging goes viral , APL Photonics, 5, 3, 2020
  14. Y. Wang, M. Kandel, M. Fanous, C. Hu, H. Chen, X. Lu, and G. Popescu, Harmonically decoupled gradient light interference microscopy (HD-GLIM),Optics Letters, 45,6, 2020
  15. M. Fanous, A. Keikhosravi, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, K. Eliceiri and G. Popescu, Quantitative phase imaging of stromal prognostic markers in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, Biomedical Optics Express, 11(3) (2020)


  1. J. Bertels, M. Rubessa, M. Kandel, T. Bane, D. Milner, G. Popescu, and M. Wheeler, Zinc’s Effect on the Differentiation of Porcine Adipose-Derived Stem Cells into Osteoblasts, Journal of Regenerative Medicine 8:2-1-7
  2. D. Zhang, L. Lan, Y. Bai, H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, G. Popescu, J. Cheng, Bond-selective transient phase imaging via sensing of the infrared photothermal effect, Light Sci Appl 8, 116 (2019)
  3. G. Pagan-Diaz, K. Ramos-Cruz, R.Sam, M. Kandel, O. Aydin, M. Taher, A. Saif, G. Popescu, and R. Bashir, Engineering geometrical 3-dimensional untethered in vitro neural tissue mimic, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Dec 2019
  4. M. Kandel, C. Hu, G. Kouzehgarani, E. Min, K. Sullivan, H. Kong, J. Li, D. Robson, M. Gillette, C. Best-Popescu, and G. Popescu, Epi-illumination gradient light interferencemicroscopy for imaging opaque structures, Nature Communications, October 16, 2019
  5. H. Majeed, A. Keikhosravi, M. Kandel, T. Nguyen, Y. Liu, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, K. Tangella, K. Eliceiri, and G. Popescu, Quantitative Histopathology of Stained Tissues using Color Spatial Light Interference Microscopy (cSLIM) , Scientific Reports, October 11, 2019
  6. M. Fanous, Y. Li, M. Kandel, K. Kilian, and G. Popescu, Effects of substrate patterning on cellular spheroid growth and dynamics measured by gradient light interference microscopy (GLIM), Journal of Biophotonics (2019)
  7. M. Kandel, W. Lu, J. Liang, O. Aydin, T. Saif and G. Popescu, Cell-to-cell influence on growth in large populations, Biomed. Opt. Express 10, 4664-4675 (2019)
  8. S. Purandare, J. Zhu, R. Zhou, G. Popescu, A. Schwing, and L. Goddard, Optical inspection of nanoscale structures using a novel machine learning based synthetic image generation algorithm , Optical Express, Vol 27, Issue 13, 2019
  9. C. Hu, M. Santi, O. Adelaja, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, G. Popescu and W. Kobak, Imaging collagen properties in the uterosacral ligaments of women with pelvic organ prolapse using spatial light interfernce microscopy (SLIM), Fronties in Physics, May, 14, 2019
  10. E C Qin, M. E Kandel, E. Liamas, T. B Shah, C. Kim, C. Kaufman, Z. Zhang, G. Popescu, M. L Gillette, D. E Leckband, and H. Kong, Graphene oxide substrates with N-cadherin stimulates neuronal growth and intracellular transport, Acta Biomaterialia, 2019
  11. G. Popescu, Gabor’s holography at sea , Light: Science & Applicaitons, 19, 2019
  12. Y . Li, M. Fanous, K. Kilian, and G. Popescu, Quantitative phase imaging reveals matrix stiffness-dependent growth and migration of cancer cells, Scientific Reports, 2019
  13. M. Takabayashi, H. Majeed, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, Tissue spatial correlation as cancer marker, Journal of Biomedical Optics, 24(1), 2019
  14. J. McCracken, B. Rauzan, J. Kjellman, M. Kandel, Y. Liu, A. Badea, L. Miller, S. Rogers, G. Popescu, R. G. Nuzzo, 3D‐Printed Hydrogel Composites for Predictive Temporal (4D) Cellular Organizations and Patterned Biogenic Mineralization, Advanced Healthcare Materials, 2019
  15. C. Hu and G. Popescu, Quantitative Phase Imaging (QPI) in Neuroscience, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electroincs, 25(1), (2019)


  1. M. Rubessa, S. Lotti, M. Kandel, G. Popescu, M. Wheeler, SLIM microscopy allows for visualization of DNA-containing liposomes designed for sperm-mediated gene transfer in cattle, Molecular Biology Reports, 2018
  2. C. Hu, R. Sam, M. Shan, V. Nastasa, M. Wang, T. Kim, M. Gillette, P. Sengupta and G. Popescu, Optical excitation and detection of neuronal activity, Journal of Biophotonics,2018
  3. S. Sridharan, Y. Li, L. Foucard, H. Majeed, B. Bhaduri, A. Levine, K. Kilian and G. Popescu, Simultaneous cell traction and growth measurements using light, Journal of Biophotonics,2018
  4. Y. Park, C Depeursinge and G. Popescu, Quantitative phase imaging in biomedicine, Nature Photonics 12,(2018)
  5. C. Hu, S. Zhu, L. Gao and G. Popescu, Endoscopic Diffraction Phase Microscopy , Opt. Lett. 43, 3373-3376 (2018)
  6. S. Ban, E. Min, Y. Ahn, G. Popescu, and W. Jung, Effect of tissue staining in quantitative phase imaging, J. Biophotonics (2018)
  7. C. Chiritescu and, G. Popescu, 3D Imaging of Live Specimens- Quantitative Phase Imaging with SLIM and GLIM, Imaging & Microscopy (2018)
  8. H. Majeed, Tan. Nguyen, M. Kandel, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, G. Popescu, Label-free quantitative evaluation of breast tissue using Spatial Light Interference Microscopy (SLIM), Scientific Reports (2018).
  9. M. Takabayashi , H. Majeed , A. Kajdacsy-Balla , G. Popescu, Disorder strength measured by quantitative phase imaging as intrinsic cancer marker in fixed tissue biopsies. PLOS ONE 13(3), 2018.
  10. L. Liu, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, S. Schreiber, M. B. Wheeler, G. Popescu, Topography and refractometry of sperm cells using spatial light interference microscopy, J. Biomed. Opt. 23(2), 025003 (2018)
  11. H. Majeed, L. Ma, Y. Lee, M. Kandel, E. Min, W. Jung, C. Best-Popescu, G. Popescu, Magnified Image Spatial Spectrum (MISS) microscopy for nanometer and millisecond scale label-free imaging, Opt. Express 26, 5423-5440 (2018) .
  12. S. Ban, E. Min, S. Bake, H. Kwon, G. Popescu and W. Jung. Optical properties of acute kidney injury measured by quantitative phase imaging, Biomed. Opt. Express 9, 921-932 (2018)
  13. M.kandel, M. Fanous, C. Best-Popescu, G. Popescu, Real-time halo correction in phase contrast imaging, Biomed. Opt. Express 9, 623-635 (2018).


  1. C.Hu G. Popescu, Physical significance of backscattering phase measurements, Optics Letters. 42, (2017) .
  2. A. Badea, J. M. McCracken, E. G. Tillmaand, M. E. Kandel, S. S. Rubakhin, G. Popescu, J. V. Sweedler, and R. G. Nuzzo, 3D-Printed pHEMA Materials for Topographical and Biochemical Modulation of Dorsal Root Ganglion Cell Response, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2017 9 (36).
  3. A. Fan, A. Tofangchi, M. Kandel, G. Popescu, T. Saif, Coupled circumferential and axial tension driven by actin and myosin influences in vivo axon diameter, Scientific Report 7, 2017
  4. Z. Yan, M. Han, Y. Shi, A. Badea,Y. Yang, A. Kulkarni, E. Hanson, M. Kandel, X. Wen, F. Zhang, Y. Luo, Q. Lin, H. Zhang, X. Guo, Y. Huang, K. Nan, S. Jia, A. W. Oraham, M. B. Mevis, J. Lim, X. Guo, M. Gao, W. Ryu, K. Jun Yu, B. G. Nicolau, A. L. Petronico, S. Rubakhin, J.Lou, P. M Ajayan, K. Thornton, G. Popescu, D. Fang, J. V. Sweedler, P. V. Braun, H. Zhang, R. G. Nuzzo, Y. Huang, Y. Zhang, Three-Dimensional Mesostructures as High Temperature Growth Templates, Electronic Cellular Scaffolds and Self-Propelled Micro-Robots, PNAS, 2017 (published ahead of print October 25, 2017)
  5. T. H. Nguyen†, M. E. Kandel†, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens, Nature Communications 8, Article number: 210 (2017)
  6. Y. Lee, P. Cintora, J. Arikkath, O. Akinsola, M. Kandel, G. Popescu, and C. Best-Popescu, Quantitative assessment of neural outgrowth using spatial light phase microscopy, J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 2017
  7. T. H. Nguyen†, S. Sridharan†, V. Macias, A. K. Balla, J. Melamed, M. N. Do, and G. Popescu, Automatic Gleason grading of prostate cancer using quantitative phase imaging and machine learning, J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 2017
  8. M. E. Kandel†, S. Sridharan†, J. Liang, Z. Luo, K. Han, V. Macias, A. Shah, R. Patel, K. Tangella, A. K.-Balla, G. Guzman, and G. Popescu, Label-free tissue scanner for colorectal cancer screening, J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 2017
  9. T. H. Nguyen, M. Kandel, H. M. Shakir, C. B.-Popescu, M. N. Do, and G. Popescu, Halo-free Phase Contrast Microscopy, Scientific Reports 7 (2017): 44034
  10. P. Cintora, J. Arikkath, M. Kandel, G. Popescu, C. Best-Popescu, Cell density modulates intracellular mass transport in neural networks, Cytometry Part A (2017).
  11. G. Popescu, The power of imaging with phase, not power, Physics Today 2017 70:5, 34-40.
  12. H. Majeed, C. Okoro, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, K. C. Toussaint, G. Popescu, Quantifying collagen fiber orientation in breast cancer using quantitative phase imaging, J. Biomed. Opt. 22(4), 046004 (2017).
  13. M. E. Kandel, D. Fernandes, A. M. Taylor, H. Shakir, C. Best-Popescu, and G. Popescu , Three-Dimensional Intracellular Transport in Neuron Bodies and Neurites Investigated by Label-Free Dispersion-Relation Phase Spectroscopy, Cytometry: Part A (2017)
  14. A. Evans, B. Bhaduri, G. Popescu, and A. Levine, Geometric localization of thermal fluctuations in red blood cells, PNAS 2017 : 1613204114v1-201613204
  15. E. Min, S. Ban, Y. Wang, S. Bae, G. Popescu, C. Best-Popescu, and W. Jung, Measurement of multispectral scattering properties in mouse brain tissue, Biomed. Opt. Express 8, 1763-1770 (2017)
  16. H. Majeed, S. Sridharan, M. Mir, L. Ma, G. Popescu, Quantitative phase imaging for medical diagnosis, Journal of Biophotonics (2016)
  17. M. Shan, M. E. Kandel, and G.Popescu, Refractive index variance of cells and tissues measured by quantitative phase imaging, Opt. Express 25, 1573-1581 (2017)


  1. M. Shan, M. E. Kandel, H. Majeed, V. Nastasa, and G. Popescu, White-light diffraction phase microscopy at doubled space-bandwidth product, Opt. Express 24, 29033-29039 (2016)
  2. M. E. Kandel , K. W. Teng, P. R. Selvin, and G. Popescu, Label-Free Imaging of Single Microtubule Dynamics Using Spatial Light Interference Microscopy, ACS Nano (2016)
  3. E. Min, M. E. Kandel, C. J Ko, G. Popescu, W. Jung and C. Best-Popescu, Label-free, multi-scale imaging of ex-vivo mouse brain using spatial light interference microscopy, Scientific Reports (2016)
  4. S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, J. Melamed, E. Dube, M. X. Kong, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, G. Popescu, Scientific Reports. Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging: Validation on a general population (2016)
  5. L. Ma, G. Rajshekhar, R. Wang, B. Bhaduri, S. Sridharan, M. Mir, A. Chakraborty, S. Prasanth, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, Phase correlation imaging of unlabeled cell dynamic, Scientific Reports (2016)
  6. T. Nguyen, C. A. Edwards, L. L. Goddard, G. Popescu, Quantitative phase imaging of weakly scattering objects using partially coherent illumination, Opt. Lett., 24(11), 11683-11693 (2016).
  7. M. Shan, V. Nastasa, and G. Popescu, Statistical dispersion relation for spatially broadband fields, Opt. Lett., 41(11), 2394-2496 (2016)
  8. J. M. McCracken, A. Badea, M. E. Kandel, A. S. Gladman, D. J. Wetzel, G. Popescu, J. A. Lewis, R. G. Nuzzo*, Programming Mechanical and Physicochemical Properties of 3D Hydrogel Cellular Microcultures via Direct Ink Writing, Advanced Healthcare Materials (2016).
  9. R. Horstmeyer, R. Heintzmann, G. Popescu, L. Waller, C. Yang, Standardizing the resolution claims for coherent microscopy, Nature Photonics, 10(2), 68-71, (2016).
  10. R. Wang, L. Lei, S. Sridharan, Y. Wang, A. Levine, and G. Popescu, Dispersion relations of cytoskeleton dynamics, Cell Health and Cytoskeleton, 8, 1-7 (2016).
  11. T. Kim, R. Zhou, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, Solving inverse scattering problems in biological samples by quantitative phase imaging, Laser & Photonics Reviews, 10(1), 13-39 (2016).


  1. R. Raman, B. Bhaduri, A. Shkumatov, M. K. Lee, M. Mir, G. Popescu, H. Kong, R. Bashir, High‐Resolution Projection Microstereolithography for Patterning of Neovasculature, Advanced Healthcare Materials (2015)
  2. S. Ceballos, M. E. Kandel, S. Sridharan, H. Majeed, F. Monroy and G. Popescu, Active intracellular transport in metastatic cells studied by spatial light interference microscopy, J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111209-111209 (2015)
  3. C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, B. Bhaduri,X. Wang, R. Ganti, P. Yunker, A. Yodh, G. Popescu, L. Goddard, Measuring the Nonuniform Evaporation Dynamics of Sprayed Sessile Microdroplets with Quantitative Phase Imaging, Langmuir (2015)
  4. H. Majeed, M. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla and G. Popescu, Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy, J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210-111210 (2015)
  5. S. Sridharan, A. Katz, F. Soto-Adames, G. Popescu, Quantitative phase imaging of arthropods, J. Biomed. Opt. 20 (11), 111212-111212 (2015)
  6. T. Nguyen, H. Majeed, and G. Popescu, Plane-wave decomposition of spatially random fields, Opt. Lett., 40(7), 1394-1397 (2015)
  7. S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla and G. Popescu, Prediction of Prostate Cancer Recurrence Using Quantitative Phase Imaging, Scientific Reports, 5, 9976 (2015)


  1. T. Kim and G. Popescu, Quantitative phase imaging of cells in 2-, 3- and 4-D, Optics & Photonics News, 12, 34 (2014): OPN Link
  2. C. Edwards, B. Bhaduri, B. G. Griffin, L. L. Goddard and G. Popescu, Epi-illumination diffraction phase microscopy with white light, Optics Letters, 39 (21), 6162 (2014)
  3. C. Edwards, S. J. McKeown, J. Zhou, G. Popescu and L. L. Goddard, In situ measurements of the axial expansion of palladium microdisks during hydrogen exposure using diffraction phase microscopy, Optical Materials Express, 4 (12), 2559-2564 (2014)
  4. G. Rajshekhar, B. Bhaduri, K. Tangella and G. Popescu, Spatiotemporal characterization of a fibrin clot using quantitative phase imaging, PLoS One, 9 (11), e111381 (2014)
  5. T. Nguyen, C. Edwards, L. L. Goddard and G. Popescu, Quantitative phase imaging with partially coherent illumination, Opt. Lett., 39 (19), 5511 (2014)
  6. B. Bhaduri, M. Kandel, C. Brugnara, K. Tangella and G. Popescu, Optical Assay of Erythrocyte Function in Banked Blood, Scientific Reports, 4, 6211 (2014)
  7. C. Edwards, R. Zhou, S-W Hwang, S. J. McKeown, K. Wang, B. Bhaduri, R. Ganti, P. J. Yunker, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Rogers, L. L. Goddard and G. Popescu, Diffraction phase microscopy: monitoring nanoscale dynamics in materials science [Invited], Appl. Opt. (Special Issue on Digital Holography), 53 (27), G33 (2014)
  8. R. Zhou, T. Kim, L. L. Goddard and G. Popescu, Inverse scattering solutions using low-coherence light, Opt. Lett., 39 (15), 4494 (2014)
  9. S. -W. Hwang, G. Park, C. Edwards, E. Corbin, S. -K Kang, H. Cheng, J. -K. Song, J. -H. Kim, S. Yu, J. Ng, J. E. Lee, C. Yee, B. Bhaduri, F. G. Omennetto, Y. Huang, R. Bashir, L. Goddard, G. Popescu. K. -M. Lee, J. A. Rogers, Chemistry and biocompatibility of single crystalline silicon nanomembranes and associated materials for transient electronics, ACS Nano, Article ASAP (2014)
  10. T. Kim, R. Zhou, L. L. Goddard and G. Popescu, Quantitative phase imaging (QPI): Metrology meets biology, Photonics Journal, IEEE, 6 (2), 1 (2014)
  11. B. Bhaduri, C. Edwards, R. Zhou, H. Pham, T. H. Nguyen, L. L. Goddard and G. Popescu Diffraction phase microscopy: principles and applications in materials and life sciences, Advances in Optics and Photonics, 6, 57 (2014)
  12. M. Mir, T. Kim, A. Majumder, M. Xiang, R. Wang, S. C. Liu, M. U. Gillette, S. Stice and G. Popescu, Label-free characterization of emerging human neuronal networks, Scientific Reports, 4, 4434 (2014)
  13. C. Edwards, B. Bhaduri, T. Nguyen, B. G. Griffin, H. Pham, T. Kim, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, Effects of spatial coherence in diffraction phase microscopy, Opt. Exp., 22 (5), 5133 (2014)
  14. M. Mir, A. Bergamaschi, B. S. Katzenellenbogen, and G. Popescu, Highly sensitive quantitative imaging for monitoring single cancer cell growth kinetics and drug response, PLoS ONE, 9 (2), e89000 (2014)
  15. G. Rajshekhar, B. Bhaduri, C. Edwards, R. Zhou, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, Nanoscale topography and spatial light modulator characterization using wide-field quantitative phase imaging, Opt. Exp., 22 (3), 3432 (2014)
  16. T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard and G. Popescu, White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells, Nature Photonics, 8, 256-263 (2014)
  17. G. Popescu, K. Park, M. Mir and R. Bashir, New Technologies for Measuring Single Cell Mass, Lab. Chip, 14, 646-652 (2014)


  1. V. Crecea, B. W. Graf, T. Kim, G. Popescu and S. A. Boppart, High Resolution Phase-Sensitive Magnetomotive Optical Coherence Microscopy for Tracking Magnetic Microbeads and Cellular Mechanics, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron., PP (99), 1 (2013)
  2. T. Kim, R. Zhu, T. Nguyen, R. Zhou, C. Edwards, L. Goddard and G. Popescu, Deterministic signal associated with a random field, Opt.Exp., 21(18), 20806-20820 (2013)
  3. T. Nguyen and G. Popescu, Spatial Light Interference Microscopy (SLIM) using twisted-nematic liquid-crystal modulation, Biomed. Opt. Exp., 4(9), 1571-1583 (2013)
  4. R. Zhou, C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu and L. Goddard, Detecting 20 nm wide defects in large area nanopatterns using optical interferometric microscopy, Nano Letters 13 (8), 3716-3721 (2013).
  5. T. Kim, S. Sridharan, and G. Popescu, Gradient field microscopy of unstained specimens: reply to comment, Opt. Exp. 21 (16), 19188 (2013).
  6. B. Bhaduri, K. Tangella and G. Popescu, Fourier phase microscopy with white light, Biomed. Opt. Exp. 4 (8), 1434-1441 (2013).
  7. C. Edwards, K. Wang, R. Zhou, B. Bhaduri, G. Popescu and L. L. Goddard, Digital projection photochemical etching defines gray-scale features, Opt. Exp., 21(11), pp.13547-13554 (2013)
  8. B. Bhaduri, D. Wickland, R. Wang, V. Chan, R. Bashir and G. Popescu, Cardiomyocyte Imaging Using Real-Time Spatial Light Interference Microscopy (SLIM), PLoS ONE 8(2): e56930 (2013).
  9. H. Pham, B. Bhaduri, K. Tangella, C. Best-Popescu and G. Popescu, Real time blood testing using quantitative phase imaging, PLoS ONE 8(2): e55676 (2013).
  10. R. Wang, T. Kim, M. Mir and G.Popescu, Nanoscale fluctuations and surface tension measurements in droplets using phase-resolved low-coherence interferometry, Appl. Opt. (Special Issue on Holography), 52 (1), A177-A181 (2013)
  11. H. Pham, C. Edwards, L. Goddard and G. Popescu, Fast phase reconstruction in white light diffraction phase microscopy, Appl. Opt. (Special Issue on Holography), 52 (1), A97-A101 (2013)
  12. T. Kim, S. Sridharan, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, Gradient field microscopy for label-free diagnosis of human biopsies, Appl. Opt. (Special Issue on Holography), 52 (1), A92-A96 (2013)


  1. R. Wang, L. Lei, P. Wang, A. Levine, G. Popescu, Dispersion-Relation Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Phys. Rev. Lett., 109 (18), 188104 (2012)
  2. T. Kim, S. Sridharan, and G. Popescu, Gradient field microscopy allows label-free disease diagnosis (invited), Laser Focus World, 48 (8), (2012)
  3. C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, and L. Goddard, Optically monitoring and controlling nanoscale topography during semiconductor etching, Nature-Light: Science & Applications, 1, e30 (2012).
  4. H.Pham, B. Bhaduri, H. Ding and G. Popescu, Spectroscopic diffraction phase microscopy , Opt. Lett., 37 (16), 3438-3440 (2012).
  5. M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, M. Bednarz, M. N. Do, I. Golding, and G. Popescu, Visualizing Escherichia coli Sub-Cellular Structure Using Sparse Deconvolution Spatial Light Interference Tomography, PLoS ONE, 7 (6), e38916 (2012).
  6. B. Bhaduri and G. Popescu, Derivative method for phase retrieval in off-axis quantitative phase imaging, Opt. Lett., 37 (11), 1868-1870 (2012).
  7. B. Bhaduri, H. Pham, M.Mir and G. Popescu, Diffraction phase microscopy with white light, Opt. Lett., 37 (6), 1094 (2012).
  8. T. Kim, S. Sridharan and G. Popescu, Gradient field microscopy of unstained specimens, Opt. Exp., 20 (6), 6737 (2012).


  1. T. Kim and G.Popescu, Laplace field microscopy for label-free imaging of dynamic biological structures, Opt. Lett., 36 (23), 4704 (2011).
  2. M. Mir, K. Tangella and G.Popescu, Blood testing at the single cell level using quantitative phase and amplitude microscopy, Biomed. Opt. Exp., 2 (12), 3259 (2011).
  3. Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla and G. Popescu, Tissue refractive index as marker of disease, J. Biomed. Opt. 16 (11), 116017 (2011).
  4. R. Zhu, S. Sridharan, K. Tangella, A. Balla and G.Popescu, Correlation induced spectral changes in tissues, Opt. Lett., 36 (21), 4209 (2011).
  5. R.Wang, Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A.J. Levine, and G.Popescu, Dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy of intracellular transport, Opt. Exp. 19(21), 20571 (2011).
  6. Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillett, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth and G. Popescu, Spatial Light Interference Tomography (SLIT), Opt. Exp., 19(21), 19907 (2011).
  7. S. Sridharan, M. Mir and G.Popescu, Simultaneous Optical Measurement of cell motility and growth, Biomed. Opt. Exp., 2(1), 2815 (2011).
  8. R. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Leigh, N. Sobh, L. Millet, M. Gillette, A. Levine and G. Popescu, One dimensional deterministic transport in neurons measured by dispersion-related phase spectroscopy, J. Phys. Cond. Matt., 23, 374107 (2011).
  9. J. Lim, H. Ding, M. Mir, R. Zhu, K. Tangella and G. Popescu, Born Approximation Model for Light Scattering by Red Blood Cells, Biomed. Opt. Exp., 2 (10), 2784 (2011).
  10. J. P. Haldar, Z. Wang, G.Popescu, and Z. Liang, Deconvolved Spatial Light Interference Microscopy for Live Cell Imaging, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. , 58(9), 2489 (2011).
  11. M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. Prasanth and G.Popescu, Optical Measurement of cycle-dependent growth , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 108 (32), 13124 (2011).
  12. S. D. Babacan, Z. Wang, M. N. Do and G.Popescu , Cell imaging beyond the diffraction limit using sparse deconvolution spatial light interference microscopy , Biomed. Opt. Exp., 2 (7), 1815 (2011).
  13. H. Pham, H. Ding, N. Sobh, M. Do, S. Patel and G.Popescu , Off-axis quantitative phase imaging processing using CUDA: toward real-time applications , Biomed. Opt. Exp., 2 (7), 1781 (2011).
  14. E. Ben-Isaac, Z. Y. K. Park, G.Popescu, F. L. H. Brown, N. S. Gov and Y. Shokef, Effective Temperature of Red Blood Cell Membrane Fluctuations, Phys. Rev. Lett, 106, 238103(2011).
  15. H. Ding, X. Liang, Z. Wang, S.A. Boppart, K. Tangella and G. Popescu, Measuring the Scattering parameters of tissues from quantitative phase imaging of thin slices, Opt. Lett., 36(12), 2281 (2011).
  16. Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, M. S. Feld, A. J. Levine and G.Popescu, Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes, Phys. Rev. E, 83, 051925 (2011).
  17. Z. Wang, H. Ding, and G.Popescu,Scattering-phase theorem, Opt. Lett., 36(7), 1215 (2011).
  18. Z. Wang, L. Millet, V. Chan, H. Ding, M. U. Gillette, R. Bashir, and G.Popescu, Label-free intracellular transport measured by spatial light interference microscopy, J. Biomed. Opt., 16(2), 026019 (2011).
  19. R. Wang, H. Ding, M. Mir, K. Tangella and G. Popescu, Effective 3D viscoelasticity of red blood cells measured by diffraction phase microscopy , Biomed. Opt. Exp., 2(3), 485 (2011).
  20. Y. K. Park, C.A. Best, R. R. Dasari and G. Popescu, Light scattering of human red blood cells during metabolic remodeling of the membrane, J. Biomed. Opt., 16, 011013(2011).
  21. Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. A. Rogers, M. U. Gillette and G. Popescu, Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) , Opt. Exp., 19, 1016 (2011).
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